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A map of Africa today is shown; the sub-Sahara region, not including South Africa, is where the European slave traders were active. The Portuguese began dealing in black slaves from Africa in the 15th century. Initially, they purchased slaves from Islamic traders, who had established inland trading routes to the sub-Sahara region. Later, as the Portuguese explored the 2012 nike nfl jerseyscoast of Africa, they came upon the Senegal River, and found that they could purchase slaves directly from black Africans. The European slave trading activity moved south along the African coast over time, as far south as Angola. On the east coast of Africa and in the Indian Ocean region, slaves were also taken from Mozambique, Zanzibar and Madagascar. Many of the slaves were from the interior of Africa, having been taken captive as a result of tribal wars, or else having been kidnapped by black slave traders engaged in the business of trading slaves for European goods. These slaves would be marched to the coast to be sold, sometimes traveling hundreds of miles. Many perished along the way - the numbers can only be estimated. Lovejoy(20)notes that losses on the ships were estimated at 9-15 per cent, and losses at Dutch-ruled Cape Coast castle were reported to be 6-7 per cent. Losses from the point of capture to the point of arrival at the slave trading forts were estimated to be 40% by Miller(21)based on data from Angola. Using Thomas'(12)figure of 11,128,000 live slaves delivered to the New World during the Atlantic slave trade, and considering Lovejoy's and Miller's estimates of losses, the number of captured slaves in the interior of Africa is estimated to be from 21.7 million to 23.5 million people. This figure does not include the many who may have been killed in the process of capture.


Montana, Joe (Joseph Clifford Montana) (m 1956 American football player, b. New Eagle, Pa. After playing at Notre Dame Univ., authentic nike jerseys

 he starred (1979 for the San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League, before moving (1993 to the Kansas City Chiefs. Montana came to be regarded as the greatest quarterback in NFL history and was known especially for his collaboration with such receivers as Jerry Rice. He had the second highest pass completion rate on record (63.2%, behind Steve Young); his records included 5 consecutive games with over 300 yards passing (1982) and 22 consecutive completed passes (1987). He led San Francisco to four NFL championships and was the most valuable player in the Super Bowls of 1982, 1985, and 1990. football quarterback. He played for the University of Notre Dame, leading his team to the national championship in 1977. Playing with the San Francisco 49ers from 1979 to 1993, he led the team to Super Bowl championships in 1982, 1985, 1989, and 1990. He maintained one of the highest passing-completion rates in the NFL, with a career average of 63.2. His career totals for passes completed (3,409), yards passing (40,551), and touchdown passes (273) are among the highest on record. He finished his career with the Kansas City Chiefs (1993 and was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2000. on dancing with the stars this week